Virtual Network Functions are a new trend in the architecting of network services. In VNF terminology, a single network function is decomposed into multiple modules or services, which are then deployed using a combination of virtual machines and cloud deployment, under the control of an orchestration solution such as Openstack, typically deployed over an SDN networking infrastructure. By disintegrating the service into micro-services and then using sophisticated mediation, orchestration and scaling services, the network operator can have optimal allocation of both computing and networking resources.
Software defined networking (SDN) is one of the key technologies driving the transformation of the next generation networks. To begin with, SDN was just a mechanism to “separate out control from data”. The logic to control the network was moved to a centralized controller. This allowed the operators to program the network on demand, from one point of control. Further, it allowed them to set rules/configurations across devices, from different vendors in a unified way, without manual intervention. These flexibilities proved to be a huge improvement over traditional networking where provisioning/configuration was done on individual basis and a single failure in the network could lead to huge downtimes. The notion and scope of SDN applicability in networks has considerably transformed since then. Traditional networking using distributed routing protocols are focussed on the needs of the basic network; route discovery, link failure recovery, etc. However, these services by themselves don’t fulfil the requirements of emerging technologies like IoT and MEC – handling multi-vendor devices, heterogenous networks (Wi-Fi, Bluetooth, ZigBee, LTE), huge amount of data, faster deployments, management of services etc. SDN promises to deliver an agile and flexible network infrastructure, to handle varying user-demands and diverse network scenarios.
This brief paper will talk about how blockchains can be effectively used in IoT Networks and focuses on how it can help solve common issues of scalability, trust & cost. The paper also discusses some of the disadvantages of blockchains for this purpose and how they might be overcome.
Cloud computing will soon be a norm for hosting software applications catering to a variety of use-cases in different verticals. Cloud Computing refers to Internet-based services that provide access to managed IT resources; these resources are managed by experts and are available on-demand on a pay-per-use model. This enables the application developers to focus on the use-case and come up with an MVP (minimum viable product) in a shorter period.
Self-Optimizing Networks (SON) in cellular networks have evolved from a concept to a vital component of modern day HetNets. Major cellular vendors have built and are busy deploying SON solutions as a key differentiator for their network offerings. On the Wireless LAN side, SON implementations … read more
The 5th generation of networks is going to be built around the seamless integration of multiple different types of radio technologies; LTE, LTE-U, WLAN. Operators want to deploy a combination of different network infrastructure and then use the most appropriate among what is available to provide … read more
Over the Top TV has become a necessary Value-Add service, not only for the Telco / ISP giants but also as a “prime” focus for other distinguished players such as Direct-to-Home Service Providers, Cable Network Distributors, Content Owner Companies. … read more
Augmented Reality (AR) in Dashboards/Head Units are an area of significant interest in the connected car space. read more
The Internet of Things (IoT) is the next buzz word and its presence is being felt almost everywhere. IoT is basically inter-networking between physical devices (with different levels of intelligence), enabling them to communicate with each other in order to realize some business … read more
The hospitality industry is going through a digital transformation and industry players are using multiple channels to increase their market reach. The services in this industry are being offered on the e-market place and e-commerce transactions are facilitated via on-line booking systems … read more
Brillo OS is Google's offering for the newly emerging IoT space. Last year in May, Google announced this new operating system in their annual developer conference event, Google I/O 2015. Essentially, Brillo is an Android based OS, meant … read more
Enterprises are going through an era of Digital Transformation where consumers are demanding immersive mobile applications that offer a much richer experience than just a mobile web portal. With smartphones, tablets, programmable watches as well as a plethora of sensors avialable today, … read more
Wi-Fi as a technology is nearing two decades and the Wi-Fi alliance itself is 15 years old. With the ubiquity of smartphones, Wi-Fi has made impressive strides as the transmission technology of choice for Internet data; it is reported that fully 40% of Internet mobile traffic is carried on Wi-Fi … read more
The case for mmWave in 5G networks is rather strong (Rappaport, Sun, et al. 2013). Given the continuous demand for spectrum and the recent progresses in mmIC fabrication technology, we can reasonably expect to see mmWave migrate from the existing point to point backhaul links … read more
The 5th generation cellular networks have set an explicit target to improve the performance of cell-edge users. This is widely acknowledged in the industry as being a challenge; multiple studies [ (1), (2)] have modelled cell-edge channels and UE performance in representative … read more
Apache Spark is an open-source framework for big data processing and analytics on a distributed computing cluster. It combines … read more
With the proliferation of IoT devices in the market the the recent surge of DIY as well as cloud based "plug and play" home security solutions such as those from Dropcam, Simplicam, D-Link (and the resurgence of DIY solutions using read more
Positioning is the process of determining the geographical location of a device such as a mobile phone, laptop or tablet computer, a personal digital assistant (PDA), or navigation or tracking equipment. Positioning technologies are gaining importance every day in mobile systems, demanding … read more
The term 'Building Automation System' (BAS) often brings in an impression of heavy duty equipment, convoluted procedures and monotone grey shades in the mind of many. Unlike incredible advances in the Home Automation space, what with intelligent controllers like read more
Cellular networks have seen continuous growth in size and complexity over the last few years. This growth can be attributed to multiple factors; the explosion of content being delivered via the internet, the explosion of social media, the growing … read more
This article describes how Android is fast becoming a platform of choice for the Test and Measurement industry, primarily driven by lower costs, better features and upgradability for Android based tablet solutions compared to proprietary devices. HSC presents trends as well as tips on how to approach adopting Android for your next Test and Measurement product.
Analytics is about finding meaningful patterns in data. Real-time analytics is about building patterns by analyzing events as they occur. Traditional analytics is based on offline analysis of historical data, whereas real-time analytics involves comparing current events with historical patterns … read more
Android Labs is an internal R&D activity within the HSC Connected Devices CoE where our amazing engineers implement proof of concept solutions showcasing our depth in the Android and Linux software stacks.
In this edition of "Android Labs", we bring you an innovative implementation of … read more
Cellular wireless technology moved from the 3rd generation (3G) to the 4thgeneration (4G) with the release of the LTE standards. One of the fundamental changes brought by this technology was the use of Orthogonal Frequency … read more
This decade started with the wave of big data. Big data technologies have made it possible to manage and process data-volumes and data-velocity of the order that was considered impossible earlier. Big data technologies have been used in … read more
This technical article describes the essential components and features of a commercial OTT solution. While focusing on OTT Client, it shall also cover the challenges that are involved in designing, implementing and running a full featured client.The Television industry has so far been dominated … read more
In this edition of "Android Labs", we bring you demo of how Android can be customized … read more
Network Function Virtualization (NFV) is being keenly followed by the telecom industry and proof of concept implementations are already in process. NFV is an engineering approach of building telecom systems (Network Entities or Network Functions) by making effective use of commodity … read more
Security when it comes to Android has always been a hotly debated topic in the industry. As OEMs try and adapt Android to new devices,security (or the lack of it) is a big concern to them. This is especially true for OEMs using Android to develop Business IP phones, medical devicesand other such devices that have a greater need for security than consumer-grade home entertainment devices.
ANDSF, which stands for access network discovery and selection function, is an entity within the EPC (evolved packet core) with the purpose of assisting UEs in the discovery/selection of access networks, such as WiFi, WiMax, and LTE, in their vicinity; providing them with rules policing the connection to these networks.
Most Android-powered devices have built-in sensors that measure motion, orientation, and various environmental conditions. These sensors are capable of providing raw data with high precision and accuracy, and are useful if you want to monitor three-dimensional device movement or positioning, or if you want to monitor changes in the ambient environment near a device.
For those tracking the evolution of Android, it is evident that the future of the Android based ecosystem goes far beyond just phones and tablets. The OS is already making its way into a host of other smart devices, like Google Glass for example, in a movement toward what’s being called “the internet of things” or IoT.
With the advent of IP capable smart devices e.g. mobile phones, tablets etc. and easy internet access, there has been an exponential growth in data traffic. Cellular network operators have been trying to cope up with this ‘tsunami’ of data traffic by adopting new technological innovations like … read more
The MySQL cluster demands at least 4 nodes to be present for deploying a High Available MySQL database cluster. The typical configuration of any enterprise application is a 2 Node solution (Active-Standby mode or Active-Active Mode). The challenge lies in fitting the MySQL Clsuter Nodes in the 2 … read more
Lately, the Android OS has been experiencing phenomenal success. The most recent reports from IDC show that 81% of all smartphone devices sold in Q3 2013 are running Android. If you’re familiar with the industry, this may not surprise you. But what might surprise many people is that Android is being actively used in devices beyond smart phones – and the adoption rate is exploding in these areas as well. The operating system has already been deployed in business IP phones, medical devices, set top boxes, gaming consoles, car dashboards/rear-end systems and a variety of additional vertical markets with new ones coming up every month. Those who have been tracking our coverage of the benefits of using Android beyond phones (see our articles on IoT and Android vs Linux) already know that for any system currently based on Linux that has a need for a rich UX and networking options, Android makes a lot of sense.
While UI test automation is well understood for the desktop market, with a plethora of good tools available, the mobile market is different. Due to platform fragmentation and restrictions imposed by mobile device OSs, UI automation is a harder problem to solve. Over time, several tools have … read more
Starting 2007 (launch of the venerable iPhone), Smart phones have changed the way we look at mobile communication. The erstwhile ‘mostly voice phone’ device suddenly transformed into a computing device and opened a new world of possibilities for mobile users.
Amazing User Experience (UX), … read more
Over the past 18 months, bare bones, mini-computing has surged in popularity due to low prices and high customization. These ARMs average roughly the size of a credit card and are great for those tinkerers looking to develop specialized, low-cost/no frills desktop replacements. They’re also perfect for building customized embedded solutions.
Most of the server side applications are database driven these days i.e. they store the configuration in database so as to support on the fly changes without a need of restart. But this requires monitoring of all the configuration tables at regular intervals. Most of the monitoring cycles are a … read more
Google Glass has arguably become the most talked about use case for embedded Android to date. The ambitious hardware project is powered by Android 4.0.3 – Ice Cream Sandwich. Until recently however, developers were only able to build apps for Glass using the Mirror API which basically exposes web applications to Glass but doesn’t really install an Android application on the device itself.
With the exception of mobile phones, Linux has long been the standard for embedded devices, such as gaming consoles, smart TVs, set top boxes, ECG, monitors, and other medical devices. However, for the past year or so, there has been a strong indication that Android could potentially replace Linux as the platform of choice for the next generation of connected devices.
Data connectivity in mobile terminals has taken asset tracking to a different level. Now, asset tracking is not limited to inventory management, rather we can have online location tracking of moving assets based on their GPS fix. All we need to do is to install a mobile terminal on the asset … read more
In the today’s market scenario of intense competition, the organizations face the challenges of low price and high quality. The traditional model of separate teams for delivery puts additional burden on these factors adding to additional pressure. The key to success is knowledge re-use wherever … read more
Wi-Fi Direct is a new technology defined by the Wi-Fi Alliance wherein capable devices can connect directly to each other quickly, securely and conveniently to do tasks such as printing, synchronization, and sharing of data. In this article we provide a thorough overview of the functionalities … read more
While the market is hugely accepting REST based architectures due to their light weight nature, there is a strong need to secure these web services from various forms of web attacks. Since it is stateless in nature, the mechanisms of securing these services are different from standard web … read more
Wireless LAN technology is an indispensable part of the enterprise network. As the network increases, managing tens of thousands of Access Points (APs) becomes an issue. This leads to the requirement of self-configuring, self-managing and self healing networks. SON (Self optimizing networks) is … read more
A traditional asset tracking solution which could barely support tracking 10,000 assets, can be re-engineered to track millions of assets, by using bigdata technologies.
As expected, the major groups handling the inner-workings of the internet had announced on Thursday, 3 Feb 2011, that the final unassigned IPv4 address blocks have been handed over to the five regional internet registries (RIR) [ARIN]. This marks the official, albeit symbolic, end of IPv4 and the … read more
Other than understanding the organizational and cultural aspects related to application of Agile methods, modification and adaptation of Agile practices to suit the organization’s business context and existing systems and processes is imperative for making Agile work. For companies in the Indian … read more
The concept of 'Internet of Things' or IoT in short is not new at all. Infact, technologists and visionaries have been postulating this concept since the beginning of the Internet. While the idea has been around for decades, some attribute the credit of coining the term to Kevin Ashtonread more
Femtocell access points [H(e)NBs] are close-range, limited-capacity base stations that utilize residential broadband connections to connect to carrier networks. The use of such distributed base station architecture improves reception and allows the operators to deliver fast, seamless, … read more
Every equipment manufacturer requires a solution for the element management of the equipment. Traditionally, an EMS is built custom to the requirements of the network elements that it has to manage. When the equipment manufacturer builds a new product line or upgrades the existing one, the cost … read more
For efficient Operations, network elements of a Telecom Network (e.g. Cellular Network) are integrated with Operations support Systems (OSS). Typically the OSS comes from the vendor supplying the key Access and Core network nodes of the network as these nodes are well integrated with the … read more
Cloud computing has lately gained a lot of interest for the advantages it deliver s from a price to performance ratio based on the principles of multi-tenancy, distribution and scalability that forms the core principles of cloud computing. Specifically, companies such as Amazon and others … read more
Broadband IP is a great leveling ground when it comes to converged services being offered by multiple providers. For example, with the availability of Broadband, companies such as Vonage could offer IP based phone replacement solutions threatening the turf of established phone operators. … read more
SNMP Trap is a message initiated by a Network Element to notify the Management Station of a significant event. Trap Receiver play a very crucial role in Fault Management Applications, by receiving and parsing the bytes into meaningful messages. In this article we shall discuss the implementation … read more
Recent years have seen a phenomenal growth in demand for residential broadband. With the advent of small form-factor high performance integrated SoCs (see, for example, the TI) and short area broadband wireless technologies (Wi-Fi and the upcoming WiMAX/LTE), the broadband access point or Base … read more
The traditional OSS/BSS (Operational and Business Support Systems) enterprise systems and architectures currently deployed with most of the telecom service providers(TSP’s) are unable to satisfy the TSP’s need to introduce new value-added services or bundles of services at a fast pace to fight … read more
This document outlines the techniques used and assumptions made to provide a rough estimate of the downlink budget of the Complementary Ground Component (CGC) portion of a DVB-SH system. The reader is assumed to have some understanding of the DVB-SH system as well as knowledge of satellite link budgets.
With the continued tightening of expenses, IT organizations are forced to do more with less. The emergence of open source software has given IT organizations the opportunity to reduce their development cost without sacrificing quality. Software applications such as Apache web server and Open … read more
In general terms, VoIP (Voice over IP) refers to a technology domain that specifies protocols which enable users to utilize an IP network for transmission and reception of voice. Specifically, it was originally conceived as a cheaper alternative to dedicated circuit switched lines between calling … read more
TCP is transmission Control Protocol, the Layer4 protocol for communication over both wireline as well as wireless links. It is one of the most widespread of protocols in usage today. All key applications defining the web today, http, email transfer, file transfer, etc. use TCP as the backbone … read more