Articles for tag Heavy Reading

  • Open Source Software Compliance: How Hughes Systique has imbibed Open Source into its DNA

    October 23, 2019

    Open-source software has evolved as an important component of the development strategy of Hughes Systique, a global technology solutions provider. Open Source Software (OSS) during its development journey has garnered many scrutinizers, critics, followers, and adopters. Nevertheless, a wide range of OSS can deliver high quality, feature-rich solutions that address specific business needs. OSS offers many compelling advantages for businesses—from radically lowering costs, faster to market, to boosting productivity and enhancing competitiveness.

     … read more
  • Cloud-Native Applications in a Virtualized Environment

    July 19, 2019

    IT infrastructure requirements for trending applications are significantly different from those needed to support traditional applications. Application developers are re-architecting their solutions to move from monolithic architectures to microservices-based architecture. These applications, also known as Cloud-native applications, require a complete redesign of provisioning, deploying and managing strategies. This article focusses on leveraging micro-services architecture for upcoming applications, challenging requirements they pose in their provisioning/deployment/management and how latest trends in virtualization and cloud-computing space can help in resolving these requirements.

     … read more
  • Driving Operational Efficiencies using WiFi Analytics

    February 27, 2019

    There is another element to analytics that isn’t as glitzy but equally (and some would say, more) important: “How do we improve operational efficiencies” using analytics? Operational efficiencies relate to an inward-looking improvement, focused on workforce employees, how they work, what they do and when, to be able to reduce revenue leakage, be at the right place for maximum impact and more. Obviously, improving operational efficiency results in customer experience improvements as well.

     … read more
  • How WiFi based Analytics Can Drive Monetization Opportunities in Proximity Marketing

    February 19, 2019

    One of the most effective ways to reach the consumer with targeted messages is to deliver it to their mobile devices. And being able to deliver it at the right time increases the effectiveness manifold. After all, would you remember to use a pharmacy discount coupon for 20% mailed to you 2 weeks ago, or would you remember to use if that coupon magically popped up when you are at CVS Pharmacy shopping?

    That is the power of proximity marketing!

     … read more
  • A data-driven microservice architecture for VNF

    September 21, 2018

    Virtual Network Functions are a new trend in the architecting of network services. In VNF terminology, a single network function is decomposed into multiple modules or services, which are then deployed using a combination of virtual machines and cloud deployment, under the control of an orchestration solution such as Openstack, typically deployed over an SDN networking infrastructure. By disintegrating the service into micro-services and then using sophisticated mediation, orchestration and scaling services, the network operator can have optimal allocation of both computing and networking resources.

     … read more
  • SDN based Networks for Internet of things: How ONOS helps

    August 16, 2018

    Software defined networking (SDN) is one of the key technologies driving the transformation of the next generation networks. To begin with, SDN was just a mechanism to “separate out control from data”. The logic to control the network was moved to a centralized controller. This allowed the operators to program the network on demand, from one point of control. Further, it allowed them to set rules/configurations across devices, from different vendors in a unified way, without manual intervention. These flexibilities proved to be a huge improvement over traditional networking where provisioning/configuration was done on individual basis and a single failure in the network could lead to huge downtimes. The notion and scope of SDN applicability in networks has considerably transformed since then. Traditional networking using distributed routing protocols are focussed on the needs of the basic network; route discovery, link failure recovery, etc. However, these services by themselves don’t fulfil the requirements of emerging technologies like IoT and MEC – handling multi-vendor devices, heterogenous networks (Wi-Fi, Bluetooth, ZigBee, LTE), huge amount of data, faster deployments, management of services etc. SDN promises to deliver an agile and flexible network infrastructure, to handle varying user-demands and diverse network scenarios. 

     … read more
  • The many roles of Block chains in the Internet of Things

    March 08, 2018

    This brief paper will talk about how blockchains can be effectively used in IoT Networks and focuses on how it can help solve common issues of scalability, trust & cost. The paper also discusses some of the disadvantages of blockchains for this purpose and how they might be overcome.

     … read more
  • Building Cloud-Ready Applications - Best Practices

    June 15, 2017

    Cloud computing will soon be a norm for hosting software applications catering to a variety of use-cases in different verticals. Cloud Computing refers to Internet-based services that provide access to managed IT resources; these resources are managed by experts and are available on-demand on a pay-per-use model. This enables the application developers to focus on the use-case and come up with an MVP (minimum viable product) in a shorter period.

     … read more
  • Distributed Cooperative Self-Optimization For 4G HetNets

    February 22, 2017

    Self-Optimizing Networks (SON) in cellular networks have evolved from a concept to a vital component of modern day HetNets. Major cellular vendors have built and are busy deploying SON solutions as a key differentiator for their network offerings. On the Wireless LAN side, SON implementations … read more

  • Enhanced HetNet Optimization Platform for 5G implementation

    February 13, 2017

    The 5th generation of networks is going to be built around the seamless integration of multiple different types of radio technologies; LTE, LTE-U, WLAN. Operators want to deploy a combination of different network infrastructure and then use the most appropriate among what is available to provide … read more

  • Over-the-Top TV: A necessary value add service

    January 05, 2017

     Executive Summary

    Over the Top TV has become a necessary Value-Add service, not only for the Telco / ISP giants but also as a “prime” focus for other distinguished players such as Direct-to-Home Service Providers, Cable Network Distributors, Content Owner Companies. … read more

  • Android Innovation Labs: Augmented Reality in Dashboards

    December 12, 2016

    There are many ways to implement AR in the dashboard. We believe one of the early deployment technologies will be to leverage the power of the smartphone and its sensors/accessories to augment overlays on traditional head units. Standards such as CarPlay, MirrorLink, and Android Auto already exist that allow for phones and dashboards to interact over well-defined protocols.

     … read more
  • An Analysis of IoT Service Enablers

    September 22, 2016

    IoT has evolved with the convergence of wired / wireless technologies, physical devices, micro-services and the Internet. This convergence has helped operational technology (OT) to link with information technology (IT), allowing (both structured and unstructured) data generated from the devices to be analyzed for a better consumer experience.

     … read more
  • Enhancements to On-line Booking Systems

    June 13, 2016

    The hospitality industry is going through a digital transformation and industry players are using multiple channels to increase their market reach. The services in this industry are being offered on the e-market place and e-commerce transactions are facilitated via on-line booking systems … read more

  • Brillo - a brief introduction

    May 12, 2016

    Brillo OS is Google's offering for the newly emerging IoT space. Last year in May, Google announced this new operating system in their annual developer conference event, Google I/O 2015. Essentially, Brillo is an Android based OS, meant … read more

  • Enterprise Mobile Application Development: Trends and Best Practices

    May 03, 2016

    Enterprises are going through an era of Digital Transformation where consumers are demanding immersive mobile applications that offer a much richer experience than just a mobile web portal. With smartphones, tablets, programmable watches as well as a plethora of sensors avialable today, … read more

  • Getting Wi-Fi Offload to Work - Challenges and Solutions

    March 10, 2016

    Wi-Fi as a technology is nearing two decades and the Wi-Fi alliance itself is 15 years old. With the ubiquity of smartphones, Wi-Fi has made impressive strides as the transmission technology of choice for Internet data; it is reported that fully 40% of Internet mobile traffic is carried on Wi-Fi … read more

  • SDN for mmWave Integrated 5G Networks - Making a Case

    February 17, 2016


    The case for mmWave in 5G networks is rather strong (Rappaport, Sun, et al. 2013). Given the continuous demand for spectrum and the recent progresses in mmIC fabrication technology, we can reasonably expect to see mmWave migrate from the existing point to point backhaul links … read more

  • Improving Cell-edge Performance Using Modular RAN Architectures For Next Generation Networks

    February 11, 2016


    The 5th generation cellular networks have set an explicit target to improve the performance of cell-edge users. This is widely acknowledged in the industry as being a challenge; multiple studies [ (1), (2)] have modelled cell-edge channels and UE performance in representative … read more

  • Apache Spark - Challenging Hadoop MapReduce?

    December 07, 2015

    While both Spark and Hadoop are fault-tolerant, one of the basic and yet a major difference between the two big data computing frameworks is the way they do data processing and computing. While Hadoop stores data in disk, Spark stores data in-memory. Due to this in-memory processing, Spark is 10-100 X faster than Hadoop.

     … read more
  • Building high performance hybrid mobile clients for the IoT world with Ionic

    September 21, 2015

    With the proliferation of IoT devices in the market the the recent surge of DIY as well as cloud-based "plug and play" home security solutions such as those from Dropcam, Simplicam, D-Link (and the resurgence of DIY solutions using Motion or ZoneMinder), many solution providers are looking at powerful mobile clients to monitor as well as control their home appliances, be it cameras or home lights as well as be notified of motion detection activities while away. This article will discuss how one can (and should) leverage modern hybrid frameworks such as Ionic, Meteor or similar solutions to develop a common code base that works across multiple platforms and yet not compromise on speed or performance. Specifically, this article will focus on Ionic, a very powerful MIT licensed framework based on AngularJS that sits on top of Cordova and bring out the advantages of such a solution.

     … read more
  • Positioning techniques for mobile devices in LTE

    July 16, 2015

    Positioning is the process of determining the geographical location of a device such as a mobile phone, laptop or tablet computer, a personal digital assistant (PDA), or navigation or tracking equipment. Positioning technologies are gaining importance every day in mobile systems, demanding … read more

  • Building Automation Controllers: The era of productivity and pizzaz

    May 19, 2015

    The term 'Building Automation System' (BAS) often brings in an impression of heavy duty equipment, convoluted procedures and monotone grey shades in the mind of many. Unlike incredible advances in the Home Automation space, what with intelligent controllers like read more

  • Self Organizing Networks

    April 28, 2015

    Need and Ability to Organize Self

    Cellular networks have seen continuous growth in size and complexity over the last few years. This growth can be attributed to multiple factors; the explosion of content being delivered via the internet, the explosion of social media, the growing … read more

  • Android based Test and Measurement Solutions

    March 19, 2015

    This article describes how Android is fast becoming a platform of choice for the Test and Measurement industry, primarily driven by lower costs, better features and upgradability for Android based tablet solutions compared to proprietary devices. HSC presents trends as well as tips on how to approach adopting Android for your next Test and Measurement product.

     … read more
  • Real Time Analytics with Apache Storm

    February 17, 2015

    Apache Storm provides a stable and robust framework for a real-time analytics solution. The framework provides base classes for spouts and bolts. Spout class inherits class BaseRichSpout and bolt class inherits BaseRichBolt. One is required to just implement nextTuple() method in spout class such that it reads data from an incoming data stream and emits it inside the storm topology. Similarly, one has to write the implementation of execute() method in bolt class to provide business logic to process the data passed on by the connected spout. Multiple spouts can be defined for different sources of data. For example, one spout for tapping into charging data, second to tap performance data from the access network and third spout for accessing data from incoming order requests.

     … read more
  • Android Labs: Bluetooth HID device implementation (your phone as a mouse + voice control)

    January 28, 2015

    Android Labs is an internal R&D activity within the HSC Connected Devices CoE where our amazing engineers implement proof of concept solutions showcasing our depth in the Android and Linux software stacks.

    In this edition of "Android Labs", we bring you an innovative implementation of … read more

  • Current Trends in 5G: An Introduction to Developments in 5th Generation Wireless

    January 05, 2015

    Cellular wireless technology moved from the 3rd generation (3G) to the 4thgeneration (4G) with the release of the LTE standards. One of the fundamental changes brought by this technology was the use of Orthogonal Frequency … read more

  • Big Data in Telecom

    December 26, 2014

    Big data technologies have made it possible to manage and process data-volumes and data-velocity of the order that was considered impossible earlier. Big data technologies have been used in several domains like social-media, retail, advertising and finance. Here we will discuss about its application in telecom segment.

     … read more
  • Commercial Grade OTT Client Development - An Analysis

    December 17, 2014

    This technical article describes the essential components and features of a commercial OTT solution. While focusing on OTT Client, it shall also cover the challenges that are involved in designing, implementing and running a full featured client.The Television industry has so far been dominated … read more

  • Android Labs: Kiosk demo for Infotainment units

    December 07, 2014

    Android Labs is an internal R&D activity within the HSC Connected Devices CoE where our amazing engineers implement proof of concept solutions showcasing our depth in the Android and Linux software stacks.

    In this edition of "Android Labs", we bring you demo of how Android can be customized … read more

  • Network Function Virtualization- Initial Challenges

    December 07, 2014

    Network Function Virtualization (NFV) is being keenly followed by the telecom industry and proof of concept implementations are already in process. NFV is an engineering approach of building telecom systems (Network Entities or Network Functions) by making effective use of commodity … read more

  • SEAndroid & SELinux, Making Devices More Secure: A Technology Primer

    November 13, 2014

    Security when it comes to Android has always been a hotly debated topic in the industry. As OEMs try and adapt Android to new devices,security (or the lack of it) is a big concern to them. This is especially true for OEMs using Android to develop Business IP phonesmedical devicesand other such devices that have a greater need for security than consumer-grade home entertainment devices.

     … read more
  • ANDSF Premier: Access Network Discovery and Selection Function

    September 30, 2014
    introduction to ANDSF


    ANDSF, which stands for access network discovery and selection function, is an entity within the EPC (evolved packet core) with the purpose of assisting UEs in the discovery/selection of access networks, such as WiFi, WiMax, and LTE, in their vicinity; providing them with rules policing the connection to these networks.

     … read more
  • Health Sensor Integration On Android Jelly Bean 4.2

    September 11, 2014
    Health Sensor Integration With Android Jelly Bean


    Most Android-powered devices have built-in sensors that measure motion, orientation, and various environmental conditions. These sensors are capable of providing raw data with high precision and accuracy, and are useful if you want to monitor three-dimensional device movement or positioning, or if you want to monitor changes in the ambient environment near a device.

     … read more
  • Current Trends In ICIC: Inter Cell Interference Coordination in LTE for Capacity Enhancement

    August 14, 2014
    In their landmark paper published in 20001, Gupta and Kumar laid out, in very simple terms, something known to network planners and engineering professionals for some time; that the capacity of wireless networks is (measured in load per sq. km. per Mhz of allocated spectrum) is primarily limited by interference.  … read more
  • Best Practices For Memory Optimization on Android

    June 26, 2014
    memory optimization in android


    For those tracking the evolution of Android, it is evident that the future of the Android based ecosystem goes far beyond just phones and tablets. The OS is already making its way into a host of other smart devices, like Google Glass for example, in a movement toward what’s being called “the internet of things” or IoT.

     … read more
  • LTE Wifi Data Offload - A Brief Survey

    May 22, 2014

    With the advent of IP capable smart devices e.g. mobile phones, tablets etc. and easy internet access, there has been an exponential growth in data traffic. Cellular network operators have been trying to cope up with this ‘tsunami’ of data traffic by adopting new technological innovations like … read more

  • Cooperation In Wireless Networks: Progress & Trends

    May 22, 2014

    If we track the evolution of wireless technologies, cooperation (as a way of improving network capacity and performance) stands out as one of the key movers of this evolution.

     … read more
  • Two Node MySQL Server Design Considerations

    May 11, 2014

    The MySQL cluster demands at least 4 nodes to be present for deploying a High Available MySQL database cluster. The typical configuration of any enterprise application is a 2 Node solution (Active-Standby mode or Active-Active Mode). The challenge lies in fitting the MySQL Clsuter Nodes in the 2 … read more

  • Combating Android Security Issues: The Case for Hardening Android

    April 24, 2014
    the case for hardening android


    Lately, the Android OS has been experiencing phenomenal success. The most recent reports from IDC show that 81% of all smartphone devices sold in Q3 2013 are running Android. If you’re familiar with the industry, this may not surprise you. But what might surprise many people is that Android is being actively used in devices beyond smart phones – and the adoption rate is exploding in these areas as well. The operating system has already been deployed in business IP phonesmedical devicesset top boxesgaming consolescar dashboards/rear-end systems and a variety of additional vertical markets with new ones coming up every month. Those who have been tracking our coverage of the benefits of using Android beyond phones (see our articles on IoT and Android vs Linux) already know that for any system currently based on Linux that has a need for a rich UX and networking options, Android makes a lot of sense.

     … read more
  • Test Automation Tools for Mobile Applications: A brief survey

    April 23, 2014

    While UI test automation is well understood for the desktop market, with a plethora of good tools available, the mobile market is different. Due to platform fragmentation and restrictions imposed by mobile device OSs, UI automation is a harder problem to solve. Over time, several tools have … read more

  • The Advantages Of Using Embedded Android In Medical Device Development

    March 31, 2014
  • Developing for Mobile Platforms: General discussion and best practices

    March 11, 2014

    Starting 2007 (launch of the venerable iPhone), Smart phones have changed the way we look at mobile communication. The erstwhile ‘mostly voice phone’ device suddenly transformed into a computing device and opened a new world of possibilities for mobile users.

    Amazing User Experience (UX), … read more

  • Telematics & Android: What The OS Means For Connected Cars

    February 27, 2014
    In November of 2007, Google announced the Open Handset Alliance (OHA), which consisted of 34 companies whose goal is to “…accelerate innovation in mobile and offer consumers … read more
  • Credit Card Sized Computing For Embedded Solutions: A Comparison Of Raspberry Pi vs ODROID-U3

    February 06, 2014


    Over the past 18 months, bare bones, mini-computing has surged in popularity due to low prices and high customization. These ARMs average roughly the size of a credit card and are great for those tinkerers looking to develop specialized, low-cost/no frills desktop replacements. They’re also perfect for building customized embedded solutions.

     … read more
  • Database Trigger Mediation Layer (DTML) - An Overview

    December 16, 2013

    Most of the server side applications are database driven these days i.e. they store the configuration in database so as to support on the fly changes without a need of restart. But this requires monitoring of all the configuration tables at regular intervals. Most of the monitoring cycles are a … read more

  • Google Glass Development: The Next Big Thing For Embedded Android

    December 13, 2013

    Google Glass Development

    Google Glass has arguably become the most talked about use case for embedded Android to date. The ambitious hardware project is powered by Android 4.0.3 – Ice Cream Sandwich. Until recently however, developers were only able to build apps for Glass using the Mirror API which basically exposes web applications to Glass but doesn’t really install an Android application on the device itself.


     … read more
  • Android vs Linux As An Embedded Operating System

    November 22, 2013
    android vs linux


    With the exception of mobile phones, Linux has long been the standard for embedded devices, such as gaming consoles, smart TVs, set top boxes, ECG, monitors, and other medical devices. However, for the past year or so, there has been a strong indication that Android could potentially replace Linux as the platform of choice for the next generation of connected devices.

     … read more
  • GPS-based Asset Tracking

    October 23, 2013

    Data connectivity in mobile terminals has taken asset tracking to a different level. Now, asset tracking is not limited to inventory management, rather we can have online location tracking of moving assets based on their GPS fix. All we need to do is to install a mobile terminal on the asset … read more

  • A Unique Project Management Model for End to End Delivery

    July 30, 2013

    In the today’s market scenario of intense competition, the organizations face the challenges of low price and high quality. The traditional model of separate teams for delivery puts additional burden on these factors adding to additional pressure. The key to success is knowledge re-use wherever … read more

  • Wi-Fi Direct - Overview and Features

    May 06, 2013

    Wi-Fi Direct is a new technology defined by the Wi-Fi Alliance wherein capable devices can connect directly to each other quickly, securely and conveniently to do tasks such as printing, synchronization, and sharing of data. In this article we provide a thorough overview of the functionalities … read more

  • Securing RESTful Web Services Using Spring and OAuth 2.0

    March 16, 2013

    While the market is hugely accepting REST based architectures due to their light weight nature, there is a strong need to secure these web services from various forms of web attacks. Since it is stateless in nature, the mechanisms of securing these services are different from standard web … read more

  • SON over WiFi

    March 12, 2013

    Wireless LAN technology is an indispensable part of the enterprise network. As the network increases, managing tens of thousands of Access Points (APs) becomes an issue. This leads to the requirement of self-configuring, self-managing and self healing networks. SON (Self optimizing networks) is … read more

  • Big Data for Location Tracking

    March 12, 2013

    A traditional asset tracking solution which could barely support tracking 10,000 assets, can be re-engineered to track millions of assets, by using bigdata technologies.

    read more

  • IPv4 to IPv6 Transition

    August 11, 2012

    As expected, the major groups handling the inner-workings of the internet had announced on Thursday, 3 Feb 2011, that the final unassigned IPv4 address blocks have been handed over to the five regional internet registries (RIR) [ARIN]. This marks the official, albeit symbolic, end of IPv4 and the … read more

  • Making Agile work for Offshore Development

    July 30, 2012

    Other than understanding the organizational and cultural aspects related to application of Agile methods, modification and adaptation of Agile practices to suit the organization’s business context and existing systems and processes is imperative for making Agile work. For companies in the Indian … read more

  • The Internet of Things evolution and Android

    March 12, 2012

    The concept of 'Internet of Things' or IoT in short is not new at all. In fact, technologists and visionaries have been postulating this concept since the beginning of the Internet. While the idea has been around for decades, some attribute the credit of coining the term to Kevin Ashton in 1999. IoT is a grand vision of all kinds of devices, being able to collect data using a variety of sensors and be able to communicate with each other using 'internet like concepts'. And when we say devices, we don't just mean 'phones, tablets and TVs' - this grand vision includes all kinds of  'devices' - ranging from 'in-body devices (from pacemakers to Ray Kurzweil's futuristic ingestible nano robots to 'wearable devices' (smartwatches, blood pressure monitors, smart glasses) to regular communication devices (phones, tablets), to home devices (fridge, washer-dryer, alarm systems) to entertainment devices (TVs, Set Top Boxes, Gaming consoles) and even including transport devices (cars, trucks, ships, airplanes).

     … read more
  • H(e)NodeB Security

    October 24, 2010

    Femtocell access points [H(e)NBs] are close-range, limited-capacity base stations that utilize residential broadband connections to connect to carrier networks. The use of such distributed base station architecture improves reception and allows the operators to deliver fast, seamless, … read more

  • Reusable Network Management Components

    July 11, 2010

    Every equipment manufacturer requires a solution for the element management of the equipment. Traditionally, an EMS is built custom to the requirements of the network elements that it has to manage. When the equipment manufacturer builds a new product line or upgrades the existing one, the cost … read more

  • Approach For Integration Of Third Party Nodes With Proprietary OSS

    December 11, 2009

    For efficient Operations, network elements of a Telecom Network (e.g. Cellular Network) are integrated with Operations support Systems (OSS). Typically the OSS comes from the vendor supplying the key Access and Core network nodes of the network as these nodes are well integrated with the … read more

  • Migrating to the Cloud: A Case Study

    November 04, 2009

    Cloud computing has lately gained a lot of interest for the advantages it deliver s from a price to performance ratio based on the principles of multi-tenancy, distribution  and  scalability  that forms the core principles of cloud computing. Specifically, companies such as Amazon  and others … read more

  • IMS – The Ideal Architecture for Enabling Quadruple Play for Operators

    August 13, 2009

    Broadband IP is a great leveling ground when it comes to converged services being offered by multiple providers. For example, with the availability of Broadband, companies such as Vonage could offer IP based phone replacement solutions threatening the turf of established phone operators. … read more

  • Building SNMP Trap Receiver Using Apache MINA

    August 06, 2009

    SNMP Trap is a message initiated by a Network Element to notify the Management Station of a significant event. Trap Receiver play a very crucial role in Fault Management Applications, by receiving and parsing the bytes into meaningful messages. In this article we shall discuss the implementation … read more

  • Generic Design Framework for an Efficient Wireless MAC Data Path

    August 06, 2009

    Recent years have seen a phenomenal growth in demand for residential broadband. With the advent of small form-factor high performance integrated SoCs (see, for example, the TI) and short area broadband wireless technologies (Wi-Fi and the upcoming WiMAX/LTE), the broadband access point or Base … read more

  • Enterprise Architecture For Next Generation Telecommunication Service Providers

    January 07, 2009

    The traditional OSS/BSS (Operational and Business Support Systems) enterprise systems and architectures currently deployed with most of the telecom service providers(TSP’s) are unable to satisfy the TSP’s need to introduce new value-added services or bundles of services at a fast pace to fight churn and ensure higher average revenue per user (ARPU).

     … read more
  • Downlink Link Budget Analysis for a DVB-SH System

    December 08, 2008

    This document outlines the techniques used and assumptions made to provide a rough estimate of the downlink budget of the Complementary Ground Component (CGC) portion of a DVB-SH system. The reader is assumed to have some understanding of the DVB-SH system as well as knowledge of satellite link budgets.

     … read more
  • Evaluation of Load/Stress tools for Web Applications testing

    April 24, 2008

    With the continued tightening of expenses, IT organizations are forced to do more with less. The emergence of open source software has given IT organizations the opportunity to reduce their development cost without sacrificing quality. Software applications such as Apache web server and Open … read more

  • An introduction to VoIP and its challenges

    January 02, 2007

    In general terms, VoIP (Voice over IP) refers to a technology domain that specifies protocols which enable users to utilize an IP network for transmission and reception of voice. Specifically, it was originally conceived as a cheaper alternative to dedicated circuit switched lines between calling … read more

  • TCP Revisited

    August 08, 2006

    TCP is transmission Control Protocol, the Layer4 protocol for communication over both wireline as well as wireless links. It is one of the most widespread of protocols in usage today. All key applications defining the web today, http, email transfer, file transfer, etc. use TCP as the backbone … read more


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